Today In Science 01/18/17

Solar cells
In 1994, the U.S. Department of Energy announced production of solar panels giving nearly twice the efficiency of existing panels. Made by United Solar Systems of Troy, Mich., these amorphous silicon submodule (1 ft2) panels converted 10.2% of solar energy into electricity, as compared to 6% previously possible. This was possible by using new thin-film photovoltaic technology. The company has subsequently produced flexible solar shingles based on thin film photovoltaics that can permit the roofs of ordinary commercial and residential buildings to evolve from simply providing protection from the weather to becoming a source of much-needed electric power

Legionnaire’s disease
Thumbnail – Legionnaire’s disease
(source)
In 1977, scientists at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, first announced* that they had sufficient laboratory evidence to implicate a bacterium as the cause of Legionnaire’s Disease, now named Legionella pneumophila. An outbreak of this disease in Philadelphia in 1976, largely among people attending a state convention of the American Legion, led to the name “Legionnaires’ Disease.” After the bacterium causing the illness was named, the name of the illness was changed to legionellosis. The scientific paper describing the isolation of the bacterium as published 1 Dec 1977 in The New England Journal of Medicine. [Image: Legionella pneumophila multiplying inside a cultured human lung fibroblast. Multiple intracellular bacilli, including dividing bacilli, are visible in longitudinal and cross section. Transmission electron micrograph.]

Credit to todayinsci.com

Budgets are the Devil

 

How many of us have created a budget and failed miserably to stick to it? I know I have!

I did away with our budget, it is the devil! It does nothing but make you feel like a failure!

Here is how our finances work:

The husband and I both make around about the same amount give or take a few thousand a year.

Monthly:

Husband: Rent

Myself: Electric (which we cut in half by not using our central heat and using space heaters), water, Internet, and groceries.

It may seem like I am paying more but really the total amount is about equal.

As you can see, we know what we are going to pay but its not on paper. It is not labeled a budget. We decided what to do with the extra money left over. I might deposit mine into my 401k and he might do early christmas shopping or vice versa. We DO NOT have rules on what we are allowed to do with the extra left over after bills.

If we budgeted every dollar we would fail and become discouraged. By not budgeting, as long as the bills are getting paid it is an accomplishment and we are staying on track. There is no failure or discouragement because we have met our goal for the month.

Today In Science

Today In Science
  Pulsar discovery

  In 1967, the first pulsating radio source (pulsar) was detected by an alert graduate student, Jocelyn Bell, then working under the direction of Prof. Anthony Hewish at the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, Cambridge, England. A special radio telescope was used, with 2,048 antennae arrayed across 4.4 acres. By 13 Nov 1998, one thousand had been found. The pulsing of the radiation has clock-like precision , up to 1,000 times per second. A pulsar is believed to be a neutron star with exceedingly rapid spin. Rotational periods range from 1.57 milliseconds to 5.1 sec. Pulsars prompted studies of quantum-degenerate fluids, relativistic gravity and interstellar magnetic fields. Similar behaviour of a star flashing in the optical spectrum was detected on 18 Jan 1968.Optical pulsars remain very rare.«

Booklist for Pulsars.

 

 First U.S. auto race

Thumbnail - First U.S. auto race

1893 Duryea

  In 1895, Frank Duryea won the first American Automobile Race in Chicago, sponsored by the Chicago Times-Herald. With his brother Charles, Duryea invented the first automobile that was actually built and operated in the United States. On the day of the race, at 8:55 a.m., six “motocycles” left Chicago’s Jackson Park for a 54 mile race to Evanston, Illinois and back through the snow. Duryea’s Number 5 won the race in just over 10 hours averaging about 7.3 mph and was awarded a prize of $2,000. Following their victory in the race, the Duryeas manufactured thirteen copies of the Chicago car, and J. Frank Duryea developed the “Stevens-Duryea,” an expensive limousine, which remained in production into the 1920s.   more

Carriages Without Horses: J. Frank Duryea and the Birth of the American Automobile Industry, by Richard P. Scharchburg. – book suggestion.
Booklist for Duryea Automobiles.